“One Nation Under God… with Justice for All?”

The United States of America was founded on the principles of “a nation under God… with justice for all….”  Are we being true to our principles?  Many criminologists, legal scholars, political scientists, and theologians believe we are not.26682691294_231732837e_o


Prisons were developed in America by a religious group, the Quakers, and were intended as a more humane alternative to other forms of physically torturous punishment. The term “penitentiary” is derived from the Quakers’ aim to make criminals in solitary confinement penitent.

The United States now has the greatest number of incarcerated persons in the world. Some facts to consider:*

  • The US incarceration rate exceeds other similar democratic (European) nations.
  • By 2001 the U.S. incarceration rate was 686 per 100,000, compared to European rates at around 100 per 100,000.
  • To look for countries with rates close to the U.S. we have to look to Russia (628 per hundred thousand) or South Africa (400 per hundred thousand).
  • The last two decades of the 20th century produced a penal system that is without precedent in American history, and unlike any other in the advanced democracies.

U.S. prison populations also question America’s principle of “justice for all”:

  • Race and class disparities in imprisonment are large, and class disparities have grown dramatically.
  • African-Americans have been more likely than whites to go to prison, at least since the 1920s.
  • Southern prisons became means of racial domination, using forced labor to farm cotton and build roads.
  • Blacks are eight times more likely to be incarcerated in state and federal prisons than whites.
  • More poor and minority men receive prison sentences despite lower arrest rates than twenty-five years ago.
  • Prisons originally housed violent offenders, but a “war on drugs” led to an increase in the prosecution and incarceration of drug offenders—a 45 percent increase. [*Source: Bruce Western. Punishment and Inequality in America (New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 2006), pp. 3, 14-15, 30, 50.]

Criminology-Theology Connection15351407435_bcb791070e_o

“But let justice roll down like waters, and righteousness like an everflowing stream” (Amos 5:24).

“One of the greatest failures of the church is that it often has not applied love into the realm of justice.  Christian love is incomplete when it is not fulfilled in justice.  A love ethic that does not include an ethic of justice lacks the full power of love.”  –Stephen Charles Mott, A Christian Perspective on Political Thought (New York: Oxford University Press, 1993), p. 92.

The “criminology-theology-connection”: What is it?

This blog is about the connections, the links, and the “overlaps” between criminology and theology.  These two disciplines of study are not generally associated together.  But they are closely associated—in many ways.

Criminology is the scientific study of crime as a social phenomenon, of criminals, and of penal treatment of persons convicted of crimes.

Theology is the study of the nature of God and religious beliefs.

So where’s the connection?  You’re still not convinced, are you?  Then consider this:  what ranks among the top five concerns of most Americans?  Crime, and the fear of crime.  Criminology studies the extent and nature of crime.  How much crime is there?  Who are the criminals?  Who are the victims?  Where do most crimes occur?  What are the causes of crime? What are the best responses to crime?

So how does theology connect with criminology?  In a number of ways, beginning with the victims of crime, and the families of the victims of violent crimes.  To whom do most people turn following a tragic violent crime incident?  To God.  We question “why God would allow such a senseless, tragic and evil act to occur!”  “Why are there such evil people in the world?”  “Why did this terrible, tragic shooting happen here, and why is my loved one a victim of this crime?!”

Such questions are appropriate questions to ask.  Does theology have all the answers?  No, it does not.  But theology is very present in those who “practice theology” through pastoral care, a comforting presence, prayer, and those who officiate at the funeral services of loved ones senselessly killed in criminal acts of violence.


But there’s more.  Theology plays an important role with criminology in discerning the causes of crime, and the effects of evil and sin that have always been a part of humankind in every generation.  Theology offers guidance and support toward the process of justice in holding offenders accountable for crimes.  Theology connects with criminal justice in treating convicted criminal offenders with dignity, humane punishment, and restorative justice in place of retributive justice.

This is just a beginning look at the “criminology-theology-connection.”  I invite you to join with me in exploring this connection in more depth.